University of London
ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE INTERNET
Anthropology and Computing
COURSE AN51005A (0.5 CU)
OUTLINE 2000/2001 (Spring Term)
Course Lecturer: Dr. Gustaaf Houtman
Technology is an agent for social change. The introduction of new information
technologies into a broad range of human activities is having an impact on human
communication and the structure of human organisation. Ability to access and make use
of information technology - whether in work or leisure - has become a vital skill in
Inevitably anthropological methods of gathering and disseminating data are also
changing. Word-processors are replacing pens to capture fieldwork data and, together
with captured sounds and images, novel ways are found to structure, analyse and present
data. Today anthropological research inevitably involves browsing through large amounts
of various kinds of electronic data and manipulate this to best effect.
This course seeks to extend the student's grasp of information technology and its software
in a practical and fun way as a tool exploring some of the many novel information
services available to us today without expecting much formal theoretical knowledge
about the particulars of the rapidly changing configurations of hardware and software.
However, the course also aims to provide insight into how different approaches to
searching for data could lead to divergent conclusions on the same topic.
By focusing primarily on the acquisition and manipulation of anthropological data
through the Internet and other electronic forms, this course contributes a useful tool to
other anthropology courses and other subjects, and the practical skills thus learnt can
easily be transferred to the work and home environment. The Internet access combined
with e-mail facilities are now virtually free.
The course is divided into four parts, all with anthropological questions in mind:
PART I. INTRODUCTORY
Week 1. E-mail/electronic mailing lists
PART II. INTERNET (1) - INTRODUCTORY
Week 2. The Web-Browser approach to discussion and newsgroups
Week 3. Navigating Anthropology Sites
PART III. ON-LINE SEARCHES
Week 4. Accessing library catalogues (Libertas, Niss)
Week 5. On-line reference and citation searches (FirstSearch, BIDS, The Anthropological
IV. THE INTERNET (2) - ADVANCED
Week 6. Monitoring Week - no classes
Week 7. How do I find what I want? Search engines (SE)?
Week 8. Anthropology and ethnic representation on the Internet
Week 9, 10 and 11. There is no fixed topic these two weeks. Issues will be adressed in
relation to the assignment 2 projects (assessed part of course: due in on Friday 31
March.). Students are expected to attend the normal seminar times in case there are any
last minute problems with this.
The Anthropology of Cyberspace
Anth 34 - Honors Institute Seminar
Lauren W. Hasten
Welcome to the seminar on the anthropology of cyberspace. The word cyberspace was
added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 1997, fifteen years after William Gibson
coined the term. According to the OED, cyberspace is
The notional environment within which electronic communication occurs, esp. when
represented as the inside of a computer system; space perceived as such by an observer
but generated by a computer system and having no real existence; the space of virtual
reality. Cf. virtual reality
This course attempts to understand, from an anthropological perspective, what it means
for human beings to virtually exist, communicating electronically in a purely imagined
environment. To that end, we'll be reading analytical works of philosophy and literary
criticism. Anthropology is more than ethnography; it's a mode of analysis and a
framework for understanding.
This one-unit honors course will meet only six times, once every other week, for two
hours. Our goal is to spend a total of twelve hours engaged in lively and well-informed
group discussion. I expect everyone to participate in the conversation at every meeting. In
order to do this effectively, you'll need to read the assigned materials in advance of the
class. All but one of the articles we'll read are available online. You'll find the excluded
book, as well as the rest of the articles, at the reserve desk in the library.
Success in this course will require informed participation in every group discussion; I
expect to hear your voice at every session. In addition to this, each student must submit a
five page essay by the date of the last class meeting. Your essay should be a critical
examination of one of the topics covered on this syllabus (letters a through h), using at
least one resource from the reading list and at least one additional outside reference.
Footnotes are not necessary; the goal is to introduce new information to the discussion
and deliver a literate analysis of the topic at hand. Class participation will account for
70% of your final grade; the final essay will be worth 30%.
The sections (numbers 1 through 4) listed below correspond to class sessions two through
five. While I recommend you read all of the texts cited below, you will only be
responsible for one reading per session; please plan to have something insightful to say
about it. At our sixth and final meeting, you'll be asked to briefly present your final essay
to the class.
1. Text as a Form of Communication
a. Orality, Literacy, and the Power of the Written Word
Jack Goody, The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society, Cambridge
University Press, 1986. (excerpts) Available on reserve at the library.
b. Hypertext and Polylogue
Stuart Moulthrop, "Getting Over the Edge." In Communication and Cyberspace:
Communication in an Electronic Environment, ed. Strate, Jacobson and Gibson, Hampton
Press, 1996. <http://iat.ubalt.edu/moulthrop/essays/edge.html>
c. Polychronic Time
Lance Strate, "Experiencing Cybertime." In Communication and Cyberspace:
Communication in an Electronic Environment, ed. Strate, Jacobson and Gibson, Hampton
Press, 1996. <http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~ipct-j/1995/n2/strate.txt>
2. The Hyperreality of Cyberspace
d. The Internet as Simulacrum
Jean Baudrillard, "Simulacra and Simulations." In Jean Baudrillard,Selected Writings, ed.
Poster, Stanford University Press, 1988.
Allucquθre Rosanne Stone, "Will the Real Body Please Stand Up?" In Cyberspace: First
Steps, ed. Benedikt, MIT Press, 1991.
Sherry Turkle, "Virtuality and its Discontents: Searching for Community in Cyberspace,"
The American Prospect, vol.7 no. 24, December 1, 1996.
3. Authorship and Anonymity
e. The Author
Roland Barthes, "The Death of the Author." In Image, Music, Text. Trans. by Stephen
Heath. Hill and Wang, 1977. <http://www.eiu.edu/~literary/4950/barthes.htm>
Michel Foucault, "What is an Author?" In Language, Counter-Memory, Practice. Cornell
University Press, 1981. <http://www.eiu.edu/~literary/4950/foucault.htm>
Yaman Akdeniz, "Anonymity, democracy, and cyberspace (Part V: Democratic Process
and Nonpublic Politics)." In Social Research, Spring 2002 (69: 223 - 39). (Available
through InfoTrac, Expanded Academic ASAP, at the Foothill College Library.)
4. Text, Identity and the Body
g. Text as Identity: Authorship of the Self
John Suler, "Do Boys (and Girls) Just Wanna Have Fun? Gender Switching in
Lisa Nakamura, "Race In/For Cyberspace: Identity tourism and Racial Passing on the
Internet." In D. Bell & B. M. Kennedy (Eds.) The Cybercultures Reader. Routledge,
h. The Virtual Body
Shannon McRae, "Coming Apart at the Seams: Sex, Text and the Virtual Body." In
Cherny and Weise (eds.), Wired Women: Gender and New Realities in Cyberspace, Seal
Press, 1996. <http://www.usyd.edu.au/su/social/papers/mcrae.html>
76.478 L02 The Anthropology of Cyberspace
(Selected Topics in Cultural Anthropogy)
Slot E2 (Tuesday 7:00-10:00 PM)
Instructor: B. E. Schwimmer
303 St. Paul's College, x6651
Over the past five years, the Internet has been transformed from a arcane communication
system for the military and scientific elite to a massively popular medium. Its
phenomenally rapid growth will shortly make it as common as the telephone or TV set as
a household appliance. While the spread of these older media have had many important
consequences for contemporary life, the Internet has introduced a much more powerful
and versatile communication and information infrastructure that some social theorists
believe will have a revolutionary impact on societies across the globe. In this course we
will consider current and emerging trends in the development of "cyberspace" from an
anthropological perspective and chart the social and cultural dimensions of its growth and
influences. We will be especially interested in the looking and the contexts of the
international order, the workplace, the community, and the political arena.
Smith and Kollock, Communities in Cyberspace
1. Annotated bibliography. Chose a major issue in the anthropology of cyberspace and
prepare an annotated bibliography of printed and on-line information sources. Publish
your report on the course web-site. (20%) Due date - April 6.
Student papers from 2001/2002
Student bibliographies from previous years.
Ilona Webb on MUD's as Communities
Bryce Kushnier on Free Radio and Virtual Communities
Warren Brandt on Crime and Cyberspace
2. Seminar Report. Lead a seminar on the issue you identified for assignment 1.(40%)
3. Final exam (40%)
Theoretical issues: technology, communication, society, and culture. What is the general
relationship between technology and culture and how do changes in one area influence
the other? What are the specific implications of communications technology and
infrastructure? Has there been an information revolution?
Hakken, David. Cyborgs@Cyberspace? An Anthropologist Looks to the Future.
Willis, Erin. Information Revolution? Information Evolution?
Chandler, David Technological or MediaDeterminism.
Andrews, Jim. McLuhan Reconsidered.
Lab session. Introducing the Internet.
The history of the Net.
Rhinegold, Harold. Visionaries and Convergences: The Accidental History of the Net. In
his Virtual Community
Zakon,Robert Hobbes. Hobbes' Internet Timeline v5.4
The Net and the international order
What countries have pioneered the development of the Internet and which ones are
What will be the effect of Internet development on have and have not nations?
What will be the implications of the "digital divide" among the members of the same
UND, Human Development Report 1999
Human development in this age of globalization
http://www.undp.org/hdro/Chapter1.pdf (requires adobe acrobat).
New technologies and the global race for knowledge.
http://www.undp.org/hdro/Chapter2.pdf (requires adobe acrobat).
The Net economy and work: restructuring the corporation and the nature of work.
What is the role of the Internet in new developments in corporate structure and global
How has telework spread and what are its implications for employment, worker
satisfaction, and labour organization.
Ellison, Nicole B. Social Impacts, New Perspectives on Telework. (Xerox)
Blinder, Alan. The Internet and the New Economy.
Hakkin, David.Advanced Information Technology and Social Change The Worksite
The Net as "virtual" community.
What is the character of groupings of people that form on-line? Are they real
Castels: Chapter 6
Virual enhancements of real communities
The Net in the wider community.
What will be the effect of growing on-line facilities and resources on traditional
communities and "civil society" in general?
Castels: Chapter 7
What codes and values have emerged to regulate and colour the character of digital
Castels: Chapter 5
The Net and political participation
How will on-line political mobilization, participation, and organization affect the
democratic processes in contemporary governments?
The Net in education and academia
Additional readings will be posted as web links on the course web site.
Other topics will be determined according to the interest of the students in the course.
ANTH 4610-014 Anthropology of Cyberspace
Course Description In development.
ANTHROPOLOGY 198A/Fall Semester 1996
[These pages were printed for distribution on August 21, 1996, from URL
Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz
Professor of Anthropology
Butte Hall 317: Office Hours: Mon & Wed 9-10 and 2:30-4pm
(916) 898-6220 or (916) 898-6192 (Dept.)
California State University, Chico
Chico, CA 95929-0400
NOTE: this document is configured forNETSCAPE 3.x. ALSO PLEASE NOTE: since
this is an "experimental" course, new experimental information (such as URLs and
articles and the like) might be added to this location throughout the semester; for
instance, for a new "survey" on the web, click here.
ANTHROPOLOGY, CYBERSPACE, AND THE INTERNET (ANTH 198A) will deal
with an introduction to Cyberspace and how students (particularly Anthropology
students) can find "information" through the Internet by using the World Wide Web.
Prerequisites: None. There is a $5.00 material fee/student.
Course Objectives: Discussion and evaluation of the Internet and what has been called
"Cyberspace" and the "Information Superhighway" which is upon us. Students will work
on MacIntosh computers and will learn about getting their own campus computer
accounts, using e-mail for out-of-class discussions, working with the World Wide Web,
and learning more about the power (and limitations) of the WWW and how to find the
"information" out there!
ANTH 198A-1 [TRACS #16458] will meet Monday in TEHAMA 105 from 8-8:50am.
ANTH 198A-2 [TRACS #16834] will meet Wednesday in TEHAMA 105 from 8-
ANTH 198A-3 [TRACS #16433] will meet Friday in TEHAMA 105 from 8-8:50am.
COURSE OUTLINE & RECOMMENDED TEXTS: Note, there is no required text.
ASSIGNMENTS: Students will be given assignments that emphasize the use of
electronic resources for the social sciences, especially Anthropology. A Macintosh
formatted disk should be brought to class each session in order that research/discussions
begun in class can be taken away with the student. ASSIGNMENT #1} If you have an e-
mail account, send me a message; if you don't have an e-mail account: get one and send
me a message.
COMPUTER ACCESS: Computers will be available in Tehama 105 during class; other
computer labs are available on campus throughout the semester (please consult Getting
Wired) ; if students have a computer (and modem) at home/residence, they may access
the University's modem pool to continue their research interests and assignments and e-
GRADES: This is a credit/no credit course.
GIVEN THE DYNAMIC aspects of the World Wide Web (and the varied background of
all participants, and the fact that much exists on the Web right now, there is no text
required for this course; but you might be interested in some of these titles for your own
Edita Au et al., 1996, Java Programming Basics [with CD-Rom] (MIS: Press).
Mark Brown et al., 1996, Using HTML [with CD-Rom] (QUE).
John December and Neil Randall, 1994, The World Wide Web Unleashed (SAMS
Shelly Brisbin and Jason Snell, 1996, MacUser Internet Road Map (Ziff-Davis).
Warren Ernst, 1995, Using Netscape (Que Corporation).
Kristin Evan [Editor], 1996, Official Internet Yellow Pages (Summer/Fall 1996 Edition)
Laura Lemay, 1995, Teach Yourself More Web Publishing With HTML In A Week
Laura Lemay et al., 1996, Teach Yourself Java For Macintosh in 21 days [with CD-Rom]
Suleiman Lalani and Kris Jamsa, 1996, Java Programmer's Library.
Paul McFedries, 1996, The Complete Idiot's Guide To Creating An HTML Web Page
John Pivovarnick, 1996, The Complete Idiot's Guide To The Mac (Alpha Books).
David Pogue and Joseph Schorr, 1996, Macworld Mac & Power Mac Secrets (3rd
edition) (IDG Books).
Keiko Pitter et al., 1995, Every Student's Guide To The Internet (McGraw-Hill).
Edward J. Reneham, Jr., 1996, 1001 Really Cools Web Sites [with CD-Rom].
Chris Shipley and Matthew Fish, 1996, How The World Wide Web Works.
Todd Stauffer, 1996, HTML By Example (QUE).
Clifford Stoll, 1995, Silicon Snake Oil: Second Thoughts On The Information Highway
Bard Williams, 1996, The World Wide Web For Teachers (IDG).
Robin Williams, 1995, The Little Mac Book (Peachpit Press).
Althought I have yet to read them, the following look interesting:
Anon, 1996, Netspy (Wolff New media/Random House).
Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon, 1996, Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origin Of The
Internet (Simon and Schuster).
Don Tapscott, 1996, The Digital Economy (McGraw-Hill).
SUGGESTION: you might want to consider reading as much as you can and "playing"
on the World Wide Web as much as you can. It is not going to go away. Although
someone has suggested that reading Wired magazine every month gives them a headache,
you might consider it (Wired, not a headache!) as well as something like Internet World
and MacUser. You will note that various "quotes" are offered below and let me share
some words from the most recent Wired (September 1996; 4.09, page 210) and the words
of Ann Winbland, venture capatilist:
"If you don't work 12 hours a day, you're behind.
Either you are committed or you're not."
NOTE: we all have "other" lives to lead and I certainly don't want anyone spending 12
hours a day on this course (or any course!); have a life and take a break every-now-and-
then, and let's begin to surf and share ideas! As with all teaching, this is a learning
experience for me as well!
SOME PONDERING POINTS to consider for each week/the semester:
"I prefer the errors of enthusiasm
to the indifference of wisdom."
Anatole France (1844-1924)
"Software can never replace greyware."
AND this following statement from the Italian Poet
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
is definitely NOT
how I view this class:
"Lasciate ogni speranza, voi ch'entrate [All hope abandon, ye who enter here.]"
WEEK 1: Monday, Wednesday, or Friday beginning August 26, 1996
Introduction and Overview to the Course and the value of an initial "Road Map"]
A. What is the "World Wide Web" and Cyberspace and what is a search engine" such as
B. What is the Internet/Information Superhighway?
C. Where might it be going? And where did it come from?
D. Anthropology on "the Web!" And other disciplines on the web.....
E. Assignment for next week and discussion of "literacy" about the WWW.
1. e-mail accounts
2. Internet & Unix accounts on campus.
3. The "Future" of e-mail?
4. Beginning to "surf" the WEB with "engines" such as Alta Vista and Yahoo and Web
Crawler and Impresso!
5. Bring back what you find in #4 next week.
F. Distribution of this Syllabus and words about HTML, Lycos, WWW, as well as Yahoo
G. Brian Schwimmer's 1996 article in Current Anthropology (June 1996, pages 561-568)
and the "linkable" version on the WWW @
H. Facilities on campus and MODEM access.
I. Implication of Cyberspace.
J. Other Colleges and Universities in Cyberspace!
K. K-12 schools in Cyberspace!!
L. Electronic exhibits in Cyberspace!!!
"Any sufficiently advanced technology
is indistinguishable from magic."
Arthur C. Clarke
WEEK 2: Monday, Wednesday, or Friday the week of September 2, 1996
NOTE: Because of "Labor Day" Monday Holiday, extra time will be incorporated to
accomodate the Monday class.
A. Facilities on campus
B. Free on-going workshops on campus for all students!
C. Wonders of e-mail!
D. Discussion groups and Deja News!
E. Implication (and some discussion) of Cyberspace.
1. Have you heard of Clifford Stoll?
2. Ever heard of Marshall Macluhan?
3. Ever hear of Nicholas Negroponte?
F. Electronic Publishing!
G. And books available electronically, from Chaucer to .....!
H. As well as Charles Darwin, by clicking here.
I. And Webmaster Magazine!
"Homo sum: humani nil a me alienum puto."
Terrence (190 - 159 B.C.)
WEEK 3: Monday, Wednesday, or Friday the week of September 9, 1996
More specifics for Anthropologists on "the Web" and:
A. The first Fall 1995 ANTH 13 Syllabus by Urbanowicz.
B. Spring 1996 ANTH 13 Syllabus by Urbanowicz.
C. Eventual Fall 1996 Generic Syllabus by Urbanowicz.
D. Home Pages at this University: Behavioral and Social Sciences and others.
1. What is a Syllabus? What is copyright?
2. What are proprietary rights?
3. What are/were intellectual rights in the age of Cyberspace?
4. Look at other syllabi on the Web, such as....
5. Explore locations such as "The World Lecture Hall" in Texas.
6. How does one "create" a course to teach over the Internet?
E. Anthropology "Skull" module by Professor Turhon Murad.
"What we know is a drop.
What we don't know is an ocean."
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
WEEK 4: Monday, Wednesday, or Friday the week of September 16, 1996
A. Where have we gone so far? From Marshall MacLuhan to Hot Wired!
B. An Idea is not Information: newspapers such as The New York Times, USA Today
and The Wall Street Journal and...
C. Information Overload? Magazines and Reference Works and more Magazines and
even MORE Magazines...!
D. More Information!
E. And yet more: a somewhat comprehensive list can be found by clicking here!
"The spider's touch, how exquisitely fine!
Feels at each thread, and lives along the line."
Alexander Pope (1688-1744)
WEEKS 5-6: Monday, Wednesday, or Friday the weeks of Sep. 23, & 30, 1996
A. The World Wide Web and what It Is.
B. Perhaps More Importantly, What It Is Not.
C. How to "surf" the Web
D. What is a "Search Engine" (continued) and C|Net Com.
E. WWW "maps" of locations: Country and Tourist destinations.
"Whatever resolves uncertainty is information.
Power will accrue to the man [or woman!]
who can handle information."
R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983)
"Knowledge is power."
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
WEEK 7: Monday, Wednesday, or Friday the week of October 7, 1996.
B. The Internet (and the Internet Society)
C. The Local Scene
E. Urbanowicz out-of-town on Friday 11 October 1996: attending Phi Eta Sigma meeting
in Texas (at Texas A&M).
"What does it mean to compose?
It is the power to associate."
Eugθne Delacroix (1799-1863)
WEEK 8: Monday, Wednesday, or Friday the week of October 14, 1996.
(Discussion of all Assignments to date) on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday
"This day we fashion Destiny,
our Web of Fate we spin."
John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892)
WEEK 9-11: Monday, Wednesday, or Friday the weeks of Oct. 21, Oct. 28, and Nov. 4,
Specifics of the WWW.
C. Resources available to consider (Technology and Learning Program and....).
D. Your Own Web Page? (Check out ECT listings as well as....).
E. How Easy Is It?
2. The White House
4. More Voter Registration!
5. Election results
don't be afraid of making mistakes,
don't miss small details,
keep your eyes open
and be modest in everything
except your aims."
Albert Szent-Geφrgyi (1893-1986)
1937 Nobel Prize winner, Physiology/Medicine
WEEK 12: Monday, Wednesday, or Friday the week of November 11, 1996
A. Web page construction/discussion continued.
B. Assignment due.
"No es lo mismo hablar de toros,
que estar en el redondel."
[It is not the same to talk of bulls, as to be in the bull ring..]
(Anonymous Spanish Proverb)
WEEK 13: Monday, Wednesday, or Friday the week of November 18, 1996
A. Winding down and into the Holiday Season.
B. Information on the Web re....?
C. Urbanowicz (and others) in San Francisco at the American Anthropological
WEEK 14: November 25-29: Thanksgiving Vacation!
"Power does not corrupt.
perhaps the fear of a loss of power."
John Steinbeck (1902-1968)
1962 Nobel Prize Winner
WEEKS 15 & 16: Weeks of December 2 and December 9, 1996
A. What have we learned? How does one get a job? How does one learn more??
B. Research and Continued Sharing Information/Ideas
C. Educational Implications: Museums and K-12 Education and Higher Education and
"And with the guts of the last priest
Let us strangle the last king!"
Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
WEEK 17: December 16-20: Final Exam Week
The End/The Beginning!
"The computer is a great invention.
There are as many mistakes as ever
but now its nobody's fault."
"Growth is the only evidence of life."
John Henry Cardinal Newman (1801-1890)
# # #
SOME OTHER CSU, CHICO ITEMS OF INTEREST?
"Gambling or Gaming: Which Is It?" by Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz (Spring 1996
"Newspapers and the 'Net" by Dr. Eileen G. Cotton (Spring 1996 presentation)
ECON 198A ECONOMICS ON THE INTERNET by Dr. Fredericka Shockley (Spring
Various California State University, Chico Syllabi
SEVEN GOALS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AT CSU, CHICO
1. An understanding of the phenomenon of culture as that which differentiates human life
from other life forms; an understanding of the roles of human biology and cultural
processes in human behavior and human evolution.
2. A positive appreciation of the diversity of contemporary and past human cultures and
an awareness of the value of anthropological perspectives and knowledge in
3. A knowledge of the substantive data pertinent to the several sub disciplines of
anthropology and familiarity with major issues relevant to each.
4. Familiarity with the forms of anthropological literature and basic data sources and
knowledge of how to access such information.
5. Knowledge of the methodology appropriate to the sub-disciplines of anthropology and
the capacity to apply appropriate methods when conducting anthropological research.
6. The ability to present and communicate in anthropologically appropriate ways
anthropological knowledge and the results of anthropological research.
7. Knowledge of the history of anthropological thought.
About Professor Charles F. Urbanowicz
Anthropology Department HOME PAGE
College of Behavioral and Social Sciences HOME PAGE
California State University, Chico HOME PAGE
(1) ©PLEASE NOTE: This Syllabus for ANTH 198A (ANTHROPOLOGY,
CYBERSPACE, AND THE INTERNET) was originally created by Dr. Charles F.
Urbanowicz, Professor, Department of Anthropology, on April 19, 1996, and modifed by
Urbanowicz and Ms. Nanci Ellis, Webmaster, Department of Anthropology, on August
20, 1996. Urbanowicz may be contacted by e-mail by clicking here and Ellis may be
contacted by e-mail by clicking here. [Please click here to return to beginning of the
This page has been viewed times since April 23rd, 1996.
Cultures and Collections:
From Cabinets of Curiosity to Cyberspace
United States section of the Great Exhibition of 1851, London
Instructor: Fr. Bucko, S.J.
Location: Social Science Data Lab (A 426)
(Main Campus Map)
Fall Semester 2001
Tuesday 3:00 - 6:00 PM
Course Discussion Archive
Museums Home Page
This course examines anthropological concepts of culture as instantiated in the history of
museums and museum display. Students will gain an understanding of the history of
anthropology, the evolution of museums in the wake of expanding European exploration
and colonization, and contemporary ethical critiques of anthropological theories and
European expansionisms. Students will learn basic web page creation skills as part of this
course so that each may create as a final project a virtual museum based in a non-Western
culture to demonstrate mastery of the course materials.
The course will be run seminar style. The professor will act as facilitator rather than
lecturer. Students will be expected to prepare readings ahead of class and individual
students will present the material in each class, and stimulate discussion.
A significant part of this class will take place on the internet, an important access point to
museums around the world. While no initial computer competency is required it is
expected that students are willing to learn their way around a computer and the internet.
Students are encouraged to work cooperatively in order to experience the collaborative
dimension of intellectual pursuits. Each team will be responsible for class presentations.
Students will write individual evaluations of the museums we visit. Each student will
construct a public museum on the internet.
Through using a core text books, student led seminars, a midterm exam, and the
construction of a virtual museum which will count as the final exam, this course seeks to
fulfill these goals:
Students will learn about the growth and development of museums in the United States
and Europe and the interrelationship of museums with the social theories of their times
Students will grapple with the difficult ethical issues of cultural property, preservation
and education, copyright and representation of peoples and cultures.
Students will gain a knowledge of virtual museums on the web as well as physical
museums in the Omaha area through visits and critical analysis.
Students will hone their presentation and research skills through leading seminars on
specific topics concerning museums.
Students will develop an expertise in some cultural area by researching and constructing
an education museum for public display on the internet.
Students will gain a basic to intermediate knowledge of web page construction, image
scanning and sound reproduction as they construct their museums on the web.
Students will learn to collaborate with each other as intellectual partners through group
seminar presentations and assisting each other in the technicalities of their museum
Students will integrate ethics with theory by applying the ethical principles they learn
specifically to their own museums.
Ames, Michael. Cannibal Tours and Glass Boxes: The Anthropology of Museums.
Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Hein, Hilde. The Museum in Transition: A Philosophical Perspective. Washington, D.C.
Smithsonian Institution Press
Our course will take place in the Social Science Data Lab, Administration 426. You may
use the lab for your work at other times of the day. Please check the schedule for times
during the day and evenings when the lab is open. Students are free to work on their web
pages from any suitable location.
In addition to the Data Lab, Creighton has a newly innaugurated Student Technology
Center. Here you will find two state-of-the-art multimedia work areas located within the
Old Gym 4th Floor Student Computer Lab. Facilities in the lab Include a high quality flat
screen monitor, digital video camera, digital still camera, scanner, programming and
Grades will be determined in the following manner:
Short Papers 30%
Term Project 40%
Letter Grades are Awarded as Follows: A 100 - 90
B+ 89 - 85
B 84 - 80
C+ 79 - 75
C 74 - 70
D 69 - 65
F Below 65
Class Attendance:. Because this is a seminar class attendance and participation are vital
to the success of each presentation. You are expected to attend all classes. If you cannot
attend a specific class you are expected, when possible, to inform the professor before the
ACTIVE Class participation: You are expected to read all texts, BEFORE each class.
Readings and assignments are due on the date they are listed in the course page. Because
the success of the class as an experience in collegial collaboration depends on discussion
among seminar members, a special focus will be placed on participation. Attendance,
deep thought, reading the material, attentiveness, and interest are all vital to your success
in class but represent passive participation. Active participation enhances the educational
experience for everyone in all of the classes. You are expected to give significant and
consistent input concerning each issue put before the class. You will be graded
Four Local Museum Visits: You are required to visit four different museums and write a
critique on each museum based on our course readings and discussions. Because of
problems with schedules and coordinating common times, you will visit each museum on
your own. You will receive one week's class meeting and preparation time in
compensation for the time you will spend at the museums. The first museum you visit
will be the Joslyn. You have the option of choosing three other museums in the Omaha
Six Virtual Museum Visits: You will find six virtual museums and and write a critique on
each museum based on our course readings and discussions.
Ten Critiques: You are required to write four critiques, one for each of the actual
museums visited, and six critiques of the virtual museums you select. Each paper should
be from 3 - 5 pages and reflect some aspect of the course readings and discussions
applied to the specific musuem you are visiting.
Construction of a Virtual Museum: Each student will produce a virtual museum display
some set of objects and reflecting what has been learned in the course.
Computing:: You are expected to be able to use e-mail, the BSCW, the discussion list (
firstname.lastname@example.org ), search engines, word processing and master the art of creating
and maintaining web pages to enhance your educational experience in this class. Each
student is required to have an active e-mail account at Creighton. All correspondence will
be sent to that account. The professor will teach the students all the electronic skills
necessary for this course so a current lack of confidence in this area should not
discourage a student from signing up for the course. If you wish to manipulate your
account so that your mail is forwarded to another service you may use AMI (
http://ami.creighton.edu ) for this purpose.
It is required that students exercise academic integrity as outlined in the Creighton
University Student Handbook. Students are expected to interact with each other in a way
which will enhance the learning experience of all and which is never destructive of other
pesons. Because of the importance of acknowledged collaboration, students are required
to cite all assistance, including that gained from peers. Students must never plagiarize.
The professor maintains an audit policy for this course to both reward extraordinary
performance and to guard against misuse of sources. Infringements of academic will be
delt with according to Creighton University norms.
If you have any special learning needs or are in circumstances which necessitate special
consideration, please contact me at the beginning of the semester. If you have a
documented disability and wish to discuss academic accommodations, please contact me
within the first week of class or as soon as possible. Students who believe that they have
a disability that may influence their academic performance, but who have not yet had the
disability documented, should immediately contact and meet with Denise Le Clair,
Coordinator of Services for Students with Disabilities. If a student suspects a disability,
he or she can meet with Linda Pappas who is the Academic Success Counselor at
Creighton's Counseling and Pyschological Services.
Office: Admin Bldg 433
Tu: 12:45 - 2:45 PM
Wed: 8:00 - 10:00 AM
Th: 8:30 - 10:30 AM
and by appointment
OFFICE EX 3587
HOME EX 3115 (do not call after 9:00 PM)
E-mail Address: email@example.com
Mail for Fr. Bucko
and by appointment
There will be a sign-up sheet on my office door. Please sign up for as much time as you
think will be necessary.
E-Mail Office Hours:
I normally check my e-mail several times a day. I receive over 100 e-mail messages a
day. Generally you will receive a brief reply from me. I am not being dismissive of your
message but expeditious in working through my mail. If you find my response
inadequate, please notify me and I will respond again more fully. If your question or
request is complicated, I may ask you to sign up for office hours rather than respond to
you by e-mail. Because I encourage electronic communications, I guarantee that I will
check my e-mail and respond to your questions and requests at minimum on the
following days and times:
Monday 6:00 AM
Wednesday 6:00 AM
Friday 6:00 AM
AND REQUIRED READINGS
Please refer to the course schedule for all reading and web production assignments. Note
that nothing will be added to this schedule once the semester has begun. My assumption
is that the students will actively shape how the course proceeds so I will rely on student
input in the first week to refine our way of proceeding.
This page is managed by
Rev. Raymond A. Bucko, S.J.
of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology
at Creighton University.
Page Last Updated: October 20, 2001
MW 2:30-3:50 PM
Instructor: Evan Engwall, Visiting Asst. Professor, Anthropology Program
Office: 421 University Hall
Office Hours: Mondays and Wednesdays 1:00PM-2:00PM and by appointment
Phone: (817) 272-3781
Mailbox: Sociology/Anthropology Office, 430 University Hall
Instructor WWW site: www.uta.edu/anthropology/eengwall/
Course WWW site: www.uta.edu/anthropology/eengwall/Cyberanthro
None. Those without any background in anthropology or experience with the Internet
may benefit from some extra reading or computer instruction. Please consult the
The Cybercultures Reader, eds. David Bell and Barbara M. Kennedy (Routledge 2000).
The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach, by Daniel Miller and Don Slater (Berg 2000).
Readings: Selected articles on reserve in the library and WWW sites.
In this course we will explore culture, community and identity on the Internet, from an
anthropological perspective. We will discuss the origins and evolution of various
associated technologies comprising the Net, especially the World Wide Web. We also
consider their social impacts --is the Internet a revolutionary development, useful tool,
amusing hobby, or over-hyped waste of time? How does on-line life intersect with off-
line life? We will also learn about flamewars, blogging, ego-surfing, dot-coms, MOOs,
search engines, hackers, HTML, cyberpunks and more. Classes will be based in the
innovative eCREATE Classroom, where students will navigate the Web and learn to
construct their own web pages.
Course Learning Goals/Objectives
Students will be expected to understand key concepts and debates revolving around the
principal themes of culture, community and identity on the Internet. You will be able to
proficiently navigate the WWW, find pertinent sites, and critically examine them in light
of ideas discussed during the term. You will be able to demonstrate your mastery of
course information, and critically apply this knowledge in examinations, presentations
and papers and web sites.
Attendance and Drop Policy
Attendance is mandatory. You will be permitted two absences; thereafter each
unexcused absence will lower your attendance/participation grade by one point. Be
forewarned that class lectures cover important information not found in assigned
readings, so absences will result in poor performance and grades. It is your responsibility
to follow university procedures and deadlines, and complete all the necessary paperwork,
should you wish to withdraw or drop from the course.
Specific Course Requirements with Descriptions
Examinations: There will be a total of two exams, including the final exam. They will
consist of short answers and essay questions. The exams will cover readings, class
lectures, web sites and videos. The final exam will emphasize information covered in the
last half of the course, but students should also be prepared to discuss earlier materials
Projects: Students will be required to develop their own web sites dedicated to a topic
addressed in the course, or another approved by the instructor. Within these sites,
students will be expected to critically examine, and aspects of Internet culture and/or
technology. Some possible topics include:
The New Internet Economy
who owns the Net?
gender and technology
love and/or sex on-line
the Internet and indigenous peoples
web-based University instruction
The politics of access
and many, many other possible topics
Students are encouraged to be creative interview people, assume identities, immerse
yourselves in your topics. You will not be judged on the glitz of you web sites, but rather
upon the ideas they contain, and how clearly, logically, and thoroughly these are
expressed. I will distribute a project topic form for you to complete and return to me by
Monday, October 22nd. Your topics must be approved by me.
Projects will be due at the beginning of class on Monday, December 3rd. Plagiarism is
unacceptable (see below)!
All students must give and in-class presentation based on your projects during the last
week of classes. These presentations should last approximately 15 minutes, and discuss
issues including your topic, challenges encountered, technologies employed, etc. A sign-
up sheet will be provided.
Missed Exams or other deadlines: Late work will not be accepted without written
How to do well in this class
1) Attend class.
2) Come to class prepared. Read the assignments carefully, and take good notes. Write
down questions you have about the readings, and raise them in class. Do not be afraid to
participate actively in class, and engage other students and the instructor in discussion.
Ask questions, make comments, think critically. The more work you put in, the more
you will get out.
3) Work on your writing skills. Since you will be graded on written exams, good writing
skill are essential. If you cannot express yourself well in writing, it will affect you grade.
If you feel you need help in this area, please consult the Writing Center in the library.
4) Get computer assistance if needed from the many opportunities available through
UTA's Office of Information Technology.
E-mail accounts and Web Pages
All UTA students are assigned e-mail accounts and web page space from Academic
Computing Services. I can be most easily reached via email at firstname.lastname@example.org and I
am always happy to answer questions, small or large. Don't hesitate to contact me about
anything having to do with the course.
Course World Wide Web (WWW) Site
This course has a web site which will include the syllabus, as well as assignments and
links to subjects discussed in class. Consult the site frequently, as assigned work will be
A listserv is being set up for the course. Ideally, this will serve as a forum for us all to
communicate about topics pertinent to class. Feel free to post to the list, ask questions,
guide others to interesting sites and sources, etc. Do not use the list for personal
correspondence (remember, everyone can read what is posted!).
Course Evaluation & Final Grade
Grading Format Weighting/Point Value of Assignments and Examinations
First Exam 50 pts Final Grades A 90-100%
Final Exam 50 pts
Project 80 pts
Presentation 10 pts
Attendance/Participation 10 pts
Total Possible Points 200 pts
Americans With Disabilities Act
The University of Texas at Arlington is on record as being committed to both the spirit
and letter of federal equal opportunity legislation; reference Public Law 93112 -- The
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as amended. With the passage of new federal legislation
entitled Americans With Disabilities Act - (ADA), pursuant to section 504 of The
Rehabilitation Act, there is renewed focus on providing this population with the same
opportunities enjoyed by all citizens.
As a faculty member, I am required by law to provide "reasonable accommodation" to
students with disabilities, so as not to discriminate on the basis of that disability. Student
responsibility primarily rests with informing faculty at the beginning of the semester and
in providing authorized documentation through designated administrative channels.
It is the philosophy of The University of Texas at Arlington that academic dishonesty is a
completely unacceptable mode of conduct and will not be tolerated in any form. All
persons involved in academic dishonesty will be disciplined in accordance with
University regulations and procedures. Discipline may include suspension or expulsion
from the University.
"Scholastic dishonesty includes but is not limited to cheating, plagiarism, collusion, the
submission for credit of any work or materials that are attributable in whole or in part to
another person, taking an examination for another person, any act designed to give unfair
advantage to a student or the attempt to commit such acts." (Regents' Rules and
Regulations, Part One, Chapter VI, Section 3, Subsection 3.2, Subdivision 3.22)
Tentative Lecture/Topic Schedule 1.0 (Course Content)
Week Topics Bell and Kennedy Miller and Slater
1) 8/27 Introduction to the Course and Lab Bell Intro
Navigating the Web Kennedy Intro
Web Page Authoring
2) 9/3 Cartographies of Cyberspace Benedikt (1)
Paleoanthropology of the Internet Wilbur (2)
No class on Monday, September 3rd--Labor Day
3) 9/10 Cyberculture Escobar (3)
Why CyberAnthropology? Robins (4)
Methodological Issues Kroker and Kroker (5)
4) 9/17 Cybersubcultures Weinstein and Weinstein (12)
Hackers, Geeks and Cyberpunks Ross (16)
5) 9/24 Communities I Wakerford (21)
6) 10/1 Communities II Zickmund (15)
Exam 1, Monday, October 8th
7) 10/8 Race and Ethnicity in Cyberspace Nakamura (46)
Queer Cyberspace Wakeford (25)
8) 10/15 Gender and Feminism in Cyberspace Haraway (18)
***Project topics due by Monday, October 22nd***
9) 10/22 The Body and Sex in Cyberspace Lupton (30)
10) 10/29 The "New Economy" Begin--Chapter 1
Ownership and Piracy
11) 11/5 Globalization, Colonization I Mitra (44) Chapters 2-4
Digital Divides Barwell and Bowles (45)
Trinidad Case Study Stratton (47)
12) 11/12 Globalization, Colonization II Chapters 5-7
Trinidad Case Study (cont)
Indigenous Challenges and Responses
13) 11/19 Cyberfutures: Utopia or Dystopia? Pyle (7)
CyberFilms: The Matrix and others Landsberg (11)
November 22-23rd: Thanksgiving break
14) 11/26 Student Presentations
***Projects due Monday, December 3rd***
15) 12/3 Conclusions and review (Dead Week)
Final Exam: Monday, December 10th, 2:00-4:30 PM
CYBERSPACE, CULTURE, AND SOCIETY
ANTH 416; SOCY 416/616; LLC 616
Instructors: Dr. Patricia San Antonio, Department of Sociology/Anthropology
Time: Thursdays 4:30- 7:00 p.m.
Office Hours: Wednesday 2-4 p.m. and by appointment
TEXTS: (available at the UMBC bookstore)
Hine, Christine, Virtual Ethnography. London: Sage. 2000
Kiesler, Sara, ed. Culture of the Internet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, Publishers. 1997
Mitchell, William, e-topia. Boston: MIT. 2000.
Additional readings are available through the Instructor.
The "information superhighway," "communications revolution," "virtual reality,"
and "cyberspace" are among the words used in newspapers and magazine articles,
television, journal articles and everyday conversations to describe contemporary
developments in electronically mediated human communication. This course will
explore the cultural, social, and political implications of computer mediated
communication (CMC), its' uses and effects on interpersonal, institutional, and
societal contexts. Topics include:
Power, privacy, and civil liberties (Who controls cyberspace? Is cyberspace
"public" space? Is cyberspace a commodity?)
Interactions and communications in cyberspace (Who speaks to whom and how?)
Economics of cyberspace (Who is making and losing money via cyberspace?
How is money redefined?)
Work and workplace (telecommuting and other futures)
Community formation in cyberspace (What is community? Democracy and
collective action in cyberspace)
Information technology and institutional change (changes in education in the 21st
Representations of self and self-identity in cyberspace (issues of gender, class,
race, anonymity and identity, is there a real self? What is reality?)
Social values in cyberspace (privacy, law and order, deviance)
Students taking the course should have a basic understanding of how to access
readings, communicate, and conduct research online.
COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND ASSIGNMENTS
As participants in an advanced seminar, we will participate jointly in a shared
learning process, with the instructor serving as a guide, coach, and co-learner. As
partners in the seminar, you will be expected to read, discuss topics in class and
online, and become a member of a learning community. Weekly sessions will be
composed of presentations (instructors, guest speakers, classmates, videos, etc.) and
open discussions. The basic ground rules are that we come together as a community
with respect and consideration for differing viewpoints, perspectives, and experience.
In order to be part of a learning community you must be informed. You will be
expected to complete the readings before each session. The emphasis of the seminar
is on open discussion and debate of the issues. Reading and spending time in
cyberspace will be essential for informed and lively classroom discussion.
Students should enroll on Blackboard for this class.
Please check Blackboard regularly for class announcements, additional
reserve readings, or discussion topics. When registering for Blackboard
(http://blackboard.umbc.edu) make sure to list the e-mail address you check
This syllabus may change depending on the availability of guest speakers or
the needs of the class.
Article/Chapter Discussions. See attached sheet (20% of the grade).
Mid-Term Essay Exam. Students write a mid-term essay examination (takehome)
on an assigned topic (30% of the grade).
Cyberspace Project. Students select a cyberspace-related topic and write a 10-15
page typewritten report. Brief project reports are presented in class toward the
end of the semester (40% of the grade).
Class Participation. Students are expected to attend all classes and participate in
class discussions. (10% of the grade).
Graduate Students enrolled in SOCY 616/LLC 616. Please see graduate
student sheet for additional requirements.
COURSE OUTLINE AND READING ASSIGNMENTS
1/31 Course Introduction
Discussion of syllabus, class requirements
Themes in the anthropology and sociology of cyberspace, culture, and society
Video "A Brief History of the Internet"
2/7 Welcome to Cyberspace
Kiesler, K., ed. Culture of the Internet. "The Rise and Fall of Netville" pgs. 3-33
Mitchell, e-topia. Pgs. 1-68.
2/14 National and International Perspectives
In Kiesler, Kraut and Atwell, "Media Use in Global Corporations." pgs. 323-342
In Kiesler, Bikson and Panis, "Computers and Connectivity" pgs. 407-430.
In Kiesler, Kedzie, "A Brave New World or a New World Order?" pgs. 209-232.
Mitchell, e-topia, pgs. 70-155.
2/21 Communities and Social Interaction
Smith and Kollock, Communities in Cyberspace. Smith, "Invisible Crowds in
Cyberspace: Mapping the Social Structure of the Usenet." pgs. 195-219.
In Smith and Kollock, Kollock, "The Economies of Online Cooperation: Gifts
and Public Goods in Cyberspace." Pgs. 220-242.
Kiesler, Culture of the Internet, "Atheism, Sex, and Databases: The Net as a
Social Technology" pgs. 35-51.
2/28 Communities and Social Interaction
Guest Speaker, Dr. Shelia Cotton, "Computer Mediated Social Support"
In Kiesler, Culture of the Internet, Baym, "Interpreting Soap Operas and Creating
Community: Inside an Electronic Fan Culture." Pgs. 103-120.
Warhol, "The Inevitable Virtuality of Gender"
In Kiesler, Wellman, "An Electronic Group is Virtually a Social Network" pgs.
3/7 Economics and the Workplace
Kiesler, Culture of the Internet. Walsh and Bayama, "Computer Networks and
Scientific Work" pgs 385-406.
In Kiesler, Constant et.al. "The Kindness of Strangers" pgs. 303-322.
In Kiesler, Connolly, "Electronic Brainstorming" pgs. 263-276.
In Kiesler, Whittaker and Snider, "Email Overload." Pgs. 277-295.
Kiesler, Culture of the Internet. Kraut and Attewell, "Media Use in a Global
Corporation" pgs. 323-342.
In Kiesler, Covi and Kling, "Organizational Dimensions of Effective Digital
Library Use" pgs. 343-360.
In Kiesler, Schofield, et.al., "The Internet in School" pgs. 361-384.
3/21 The Internet, Locality, and Cultural Specificity
Hine pgs. 67-156
Take-Home Mid-Term Exam distributed, DUE APRIL 4 by class time.
SPRING BREAK, MARCH 25-31
4/4 Representations of Self and Self Identity
In Kiesler, Turkle, "Constructions and Reconstructions of Self in Virtual Reality:
Playing in the MUDS" pgs. 143-156.
In Kiesler, Curtis, "Mudding: Social Phenomena in Text-Based Virtual Realities."
"Who's Blogging Now?" and "The End of the Whole Mess"
Bell, "Leaving the Meat Behind"
4/11 Social Values and Collective Action
Kiesler, Mickelson, "Seeking Social Support: Parents in Electronic Support
Groups." pgs. 157-178.
In Kiesler, Binik, Cantor, Ochs, and Meana, "From the Couch to the Keyboard."
In Kiesler, Mehta and Plaza, "Pornography in Cyberspace" pgs. 53-67.
Hughes, "The Internet and the Global Prostitution Industry"
Au, "Playing God"
4/18 Social Values and Collective Action
In Smith and Kollock, Mele, "Cyberspace and Disadvantaged Communities." Pgs.
In Smith and Kollock, Smith, "Problems of Conflict Management in Virtual
Communities." Pgs. 134-166.
4/25 Project Presentations
5/2 Project Presentations
5/9 Project Presentations
By enrolling in this course, each student assumes the responsibilities of an active
participant in UMBC's scholarly community in which everyone's academic work
and behavior are held to the highest standards of honesty. Cheating, fabrication,
plagiarism, and helping others to commit these acts are all forms of academic
dishonesty and they are wrong. Academic misconduct could result in disciplinary
action that may include suspension or dismissal. To read the full policy on
academic integrity, consult the UMBC Handbook, Faculty Handbook, or the
UMBC policies section of the UMBC Directory.
Diaspora and Media: Asian American Perspectives
ANTH 280M // AAAS 287A
T/ Tr 1:15- 2:40 pm, Lecture Hall 03
2003 Fall Semester
Instructor: Professor Shalini Shankar
Office: Science 1 - Rm 117B
Professor Office Hours: SC I Rm 117B
Tuesday: 11:30am- 12:30pm
Thursday: 3-4pm or by appt.
Required Course Readings:
For purchase at the campus book store:
Zhou, M. and J. Gatewood. 2000. Contemporary Asian America: A Multidisciplinary
Reader. New York: NYU Press.
Feng, P. Screening Asian America.
(1 copy of each are also on reserve at Bartle Library)
E. Kim, L. Villanueva et al, eds. Making More Waves: New Writing by Asian American
Women. Boston: Beacon Press.
All other readings can be found on electronic reserves (ERES) on Bartle Library website,
which you can either read online or print out.
Film: My America ( or honk if you love Buddha) Renee Tajima-Peρa
Introduction to Asian America
Zhou, M. and J. Gatewood. "Introduction: Revisiting Contemporary Asian America."
Takaki, R. "From a Different Shore: Their History Bursts with telling." (CAA)
Film: My America ( or honk if you love Buddha) Renee Tajima-Peρa (cont.)
Why "Asian American"?
Espiritu, Y. 1992. "Chapter 1: Ethnicity and Panethnicity." In Asian American
Panethnicity. Philadelphia: Temple U.P. (ERES)
Lowe, L. "Heterogeneity, Hybridity, and Multiplicity: Marking Asian American
Film: My America ( or honk if you love Buddha) Renee Tajima-Peρa (discussion)
Imagining Community through Media
Anderson, B. 1991 (1983). Imagined Communities. London: Verso. Chapters 1. (ERES)
Spitulnik, D. 1996. "The Social Circulation of Media Discourse and the Mediation of
Communities." Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 6(2):161-187. (ERES)
Film: Kelley Loves Tony, Spencer Nakasako.
Theorizing Diaspora and Media
Appadurai, A. 1996. "Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy." In
Modernity at Large: The Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minnesota U. P. (ERES)
Schein, L. 2002. "Mapping Hmong Media in Diasporic Space." In Media Worlds. F.
Ginsburg, L. Abu-Lughod, and B. Larkin, eds. UC Press. (ERES)
Film: Kelley Loves Tony, Spencer Nakasako (cont. + discussion)
Production: Asian American Aesthetics
Tajima, R. 1991. "Moving the Image: Asian American Independent Film Making."
Moving the Image: Independent Asian Pacific American Media Arts. R. Leong, ed.
Chatterjee, G. and A. Tam. "Is there an Asian-American Aesthetics?" (CAA)
Hagedorn, J. 1994. "The Exile Within/ The Question of Identity." The State of Asian
Activism and Resistance in the 1990s. K. Aguilar-San Juan, ed. South End. (ERES)
Film: Babekiueria (excerpts); Two Lies.
Production: Asian American Identities
Tajima-Pena, R. 2000. "No Mo Po Mo and Other Tales of the Road." In Countervisions:
Asian American Film Criticism. D. Hamamoto and S. Liu, eds. Temple U.P. (ERES)
Feng, P. "Being Chinese American, Becoming Chinese American: Chan is Missing."
Film: Chan is Missing (excerpts)
Thursday 9/25 ** Paper #1 Due **
Lowe, L. "Work, Immigration, Gender: Asian 'American' Women." In Making More
Film: Miss India Georgia, Daniel Friedman and Sharon Grimberg (or TBA)
Liu, S. "Passion and Commitment: Asian American Women and Hollywood." In Making
Chan, J. 2001. "Chapter One: American Inheritance: Chinese American Male Identities."
Chinese American Masculinities: From Fu Manchu to Bruce Lee. New York: Routledge.
Film: Slaying the Dragon
Takagi, D. "Maiden Voyage: Excursion into Sexuality and Identity Politics in Asian
Chiang, M. "Coming out into the Global System: Postmodern Patriarchies and
Transnational Sexualities in The Wedding Banquet." (SAA)
Film: The Wedding Banquet (excerpts)
Deconstructing Print Media
van Dijk, T. 2000. "New(s) Racism: A Discourse Analytical Approach." In Ethnic
Minorities and the Media. S. Cottle, ed. Buckingham: Open University Press. (ERES)
Nishi, S. 1999. "Asian Americans at the Intersection of International and Domestic
Tensions: An Analysis of Newspaper Coverage." In Across the Pacific: Asian Americans
and Globalization. E. Hu-DeHart, ed. Philadelphia: Temple U.P. (ERES)
Newspaper Analysis: Gadar Party Materials.
Film: New Puritans: Sikhs of Yuba City.
Depicting Asian American History
Nichols, B. "Historical Consciousness and the viewer: Who killed Vincent Chin?" (SAA)
Film: Who Killed Vincent Chin? (excerpts)
Tuesday 10/14 Paper #2 Due
Depicting Asian American History
Takezawa, Y. "Children of Inmates: The effects of the Redress Movement among Third-
Generation Japanese Americans." (CAA)
Film: Unfinished Business.
Theorizing Race and Ethnicity
Rattansi, A. "Just Framing: Ethnicities and racisms in a "postmodern" framework." In
Social Postmodernism: Beyond Identity Politics. L. Nicholson and S. Seidman, eds.
Cambridge U.P. (ERES)
Lott, J. 1998. "Chapter 5: Asian Americans: A Multiplicity of Identities." In Asian
Americans: From Racial Categories to Multiple Identities. Alta Mira Press. (ERES)
Changing Meanings of Race and Ethnicity
Hune, S. "Rethinking Race: Paradigms and Policy Formation." (CAA)
Espiritu, Y. Race, Class, and Gender in Asian America. In Making More Waves.
Race and Ethnicity in Media
D. Hamamoto. 1994. "Contemporary Asian America." Monitored Peril: Asian Americans
and the Politics of TV Representation. D. Hamamoto, ed. Minnesota U.P. (ERES)
Choy, C. 1978. "Images of Asian-Americans in films and television." In Ethnic Images in
American Film and Television. R. Miller, ed. Philadelphia: The Balch Institute. (ERES)
TV Footage: Various Network Shows
Race and Ethnicity on TV
Hasian, M. 1998. "Mass-Mediated realities and the Persian Gulf War: Inventing the Arab
Enemy." In Cultural Diversity and the US Media. Y. Kamalipour and T. Carilli, eds.
SUNY Press. (ERES)
TV Footage: Various News Coverage.
Countering the Model Minority Myth
Osajima, K. "Asian-Americans as the Model Minority: An Analysis of the Popular Press
Image in the 1960s and 1980s." (CAA)
Cheng, L. and P. Yang. "The Model Minority" Deconstructed." (CAA)
Film: Life like dust
Language and Accent
Hill, J. 2001. "Mock Spanish, covert racism, and the (Leaky) boundary between public
and private spheres". In Language and Publics, Gal and Woolard, eds. MA: St Jerome.
Additional Reading: TBA
Film: Being Myself.
Intragroup Dating/ Marriage
Film: Do you take this man?
Film: Double Happiness, Mina Shum (excerpts)
Intergroup Dating/ Marriage
Kang, L. "The Desiring of Asian Female Bodies: Interracial Romance and Cinematic
Mehta, B. "Emigrants Twice Displaced: Race, Color, and Identity in Mira Nair's
Mississippi Masala." (SAA)
Film: Mississippi Masala, Mira Nair (excerpts)
Spickard, P. "What must I be? Asian Americans and the Question of Multiethnic
Rumbaut, R. "Vietnamese, Laotian, and Cambodian Americans." (CAA)
Additional Reading: TBA
Film: Catfish with Blackbean Sauce (excerpts)
Tuesday 11/18 (Final Paper topic distributed)
Maira, S. 2002. "Chapter 2: To Be Young, Brown, and Hip." In Desis in the House:
Indian American Youth Culture in New York City. (ERES)
Film: Gimme Something to dance to, Tejaswini Ganti or TBA
Film: AKA Don Bonus or TBA
Ignacio, E. 2002. "Filipino ka ba?" Contemporary Asian American Communities. L.
Trinh Vo and R. Bonus, eds. Philadelphia: Temple U.P. (ERES)
Shankar, S. 2001. "Digitally Speaking: Languages of Youth Connectivity." SAMAR
(South Asian Magazine for Action and Reflection), Fall/ Winter. (ERES)
Happy Thanksgiving ! (no class)
Wilson, C. and F. Gutierrez. 1995. "Advertising: The Media's not so silent partner." In
Race, Multiculturalism, and the Media. Sage. (ERES)
Choy, T. 2000. "Cultural Encompass: Looking for Direction in The Asian American
Comic Book." In Cultural Compass: Ethnographic Explorations of Asian America. M.
Manalansan, ed. Philadelphia: Temple U.P. (ERES)
Kondo, D. 1996. "The Narrative Production of 'Home,' Community and Political Identity
in Asian American Theater." In Displacement, Diaspora, and Geographies of Identity, S.
Lavie and T. Swedenburg, eds. Durham: Duke U.P. (ERES)
Thursday 12/11 ** Last Class: Final Paper Due **
Beurocratic Details (Make sure to read all the small print)
Paper #1: 25%
Paper #2: 25%
Final Paper: 40%
Attendance and Class Participation: 10%
Assignments (specific topics will be distributed in class)
PAPER #1, DUE 9/25: 5-7 pps, analyzing connections between articles and films.
PAPER #2, DUE 10/14: 5-7 pps, analyzing connections between articles and films.
FINAL PAPER, DUE 12/11: 12-15 pps, analyzing connections between articles and
Assignments are due AT THE START OF CLASS on due date.
Any assignment turned in after the start of class on due date will be marked down 1/3 of
a letter grade (i.e. an "A-" becomes a "B+", a "B" becomes a "B-")
Late papers will be marked down 1/3 of a letter grade for each day past the due date (i.e.
an "A" paper that is four days late becomes a "B-")
Instances of illness/ emergency must be formally documented by health center or
counseling office (i.e. no notes from Mom).
All assignments are to be typed in 12 pt Times New Roman font (or similar), 1-inch
margins , double-spaced. Remember to spell-check and proofread!
Print and submit all assignments in class-this means you must come to class the day
papers are due (NOT via email, unless previously discussed)
You must submit all three assignments to pass this course.
In case of dismal class participation, pop quizzes will be given.
Class Participation Guidelines
- Readings are to be completed before class.
- Be prepared to discuss the readings due for that day (i.e. read closely and note a few
provocative ideas and questions).
- Arrive on time.
- Attendance will be taken at the beginning every class.
- If you are late, it is your responsibility to tell Prof. Shankar you are present at the end of
- Turn off/ silence your cell phones, pagers, and other beeping/ ringing devices.
- DO NOT PACK UP until Prof. Shankar says class is over or at 2:40pm (no earlier!)
- Be respectful of the classroom environment-this means no side conversations, note
passing, text messaging, newspaper reading, doing work for other classes, or anything
else that constitutes distraction or disruption.
- Be respectful of your fellow students-express yourself, but consider the feelings of
others before you speak.
- Share the airtime-make sure to participate, but give others a chance to speak as well.
- If you are having problems with class materials or participation, come to office hours
sooner rather than when it is too late!
ANTH 4610.016/5610.005 ETHNOGRAPHY OF PRODUCT AND TECHNOLOGY
University of North Texas
Dr. Christina Wasson
Fall 2002 W 6-8:50 PEB 220
How to borrow A/V Equipment from the UNT Department of Anthropology
Guidelines for Documenting your Interviews (How to do Fieldnotes and Videoclips)
Informed Consent Form
Sign-Up Sheet for Interview Subjects
In recent years, ethnography has become popular with designers of products and
technologies as a way of learning about the experience of the users. This research
approach has been applied to such diverse problems as:
How to design office environments that encourage groupwork and collaboration
How to design websites that fit the "mental model" and usage patterns of their target
How to design museum exhibits that maximize the engagement between visitors and
"Design anthropology" is a rapidly growing field of employment for those who wish to
work in some area of applied anthropology. In this course, students learn the
fundamentals of the field. By collaborating on an applied project, they gain practice in
the research methods of participant observation, interviewing, and videotaping. They
learn to engage in collaborative analysis, using qualitative software. And they work with
designers and customers to translate their research into practical applications.
In addition to the hands-on experience, the course grounds students in the relevant
Anthropology of cyberspace
Activity theory as a way of analyzing human-computer interaction
Anthropology of consumption
This semester, the class project will be an evaluation of WebCT, the technology that
UNT utilizes for distance learning courses. Our main client will be Maurice Leatherbury,
head of Academic Computing Services.
OFFICE HOURS AND COMMUNICATION WITH INSTRUCTOR
My office is Chilton 330D. My office hours are WTh 4:15-5:45. I would also be happy
to meet at other times. You can make an appointment by calling me at 940 565 2752, or
emailing me at email@example.com.
You will read a book and a collection of articles. The book is:
Miller, Daniel, ed. 2001. Car cultures. Oxford: Berg.
It is available at the UNT bookstore.
Master copies of the articles are available at the UNT Eagle Images copy centers. It is
your responsibility to copy them in time to read them before class. You can copy each
week's readings one by one, or copy the whole packet at once whatever suits your
convenience and finances. The readings for each week are identified in the course
schedule, below, by the authors' last names.
For more information about the copy centers, see http://www.unt.edu/copycenter/.
1. Attendance and participation in classroom discussions (20%). Since this course is an
advanced level seminar, participation is essential. Class participation makes up twenty
percent of your final grade. Obviously, if you are absent you cannot contribute to
discussions, so a high level of attendance is required for a good grade. If you have more
than one unexcused absence, your grade will go down. Students are responsible for all
materials and announcements presented in class, whether or not they were there.
2. Two take-home essay quizzes (15% x 2). These quizzes will test you on the readings.
Instructions for each will be handed out two weeks before they are due.
3. Class project (50%). The project consists of a series of activities. You will receive a
grade for completing each step. Together these will add up to 50% of your course grade.
PROJECT ACTIVITY ITEMS GRADED % of GRADE
(Pairs) Field Notes
Show Video Clips in Class
(Pairs) Field Notes
Show Video Clips in Class
(Pairs) Field Notes
Show Video Clips in Class
(Individual) Codes and other annotations entered into Atlas.ti
(Individual/Pair) Chapter of Written Report
The Clients and Stakeholders
Our main client is Maurice Leatherbury, head of Academic Computing Services at UNT.
He works with a distributed learning team, so they are secondary clients. There is also a
start-up in Addison that is interested in our findings because they are developing
educational technologies. They may attend the final presentation.
The stakeholders include all the faculty and students who use WebCT at UNT.
We are evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of WebCT. It was introduced about a
year ago and had a number of problems. Some of these have been fixed. Meanwhile,
UNT has arranged to purchase the next version. This new version will be phased in
slowly, not before the next academic year probably. If UNT receives it before the end of
the semester, we will be able to look at whether the new version addresses the problems
that we find in the current version. We will also provide recommendations on what other
issues need to be addressed.
We will interview users from three distance learning classes at UNT. From each class,
we will interview the instructor and about 6 students. I will provide you with the names
and you will arrange to meet with them.
We will design an interview guide in class. Students will conduct the interviews in pairs.
Each will interview three users. You will sign up for 3 days to present the results in
class, which will involve showing 3 videoclips. You will also submit your fieldnotes on
those days. You will give a hard copy to me, and place the fieldnotes as a text file with
line breaks on the anthropology student computer.
Students will code each others' fieldnotes using Atlas.ti. You will develop frameworks
for understanding the project, using the tools that Atlas.ti offers. We will practice using
Atlas.ti in class.
Near the end of the semester, students will develop a list of topics to cover in the client
report. Each student (or pair of students) will write a chapter of the written report. You
will also present the information verbally during the final client presentation.
I hope to arrange three client meetings during the semester:
An initial meeting to set objectives
A meeting halfway through to check in, make sure we're on the right track, and get ideas
The final client presentation, which will probably be during the time slot for the final
It is the policy of the University of North Texas not to discriminate on the basis of race,
color, religion, sex, age, national origin, disability (where reasonable accommodations
can be made), disabled veteran status or veteran of the Vietnam era status in its
educational programs, activities, admissions or employment policies. In addition to
complying with federal and state equal opportunity laws and regulations, the university
through its diversity policy declares harassment based on individual differences
(including sexual orientation) inconsistent with its mission and education goals. Direct
questions and concerns to the Equal Opportunity Office, 940 565 2456, or the Dean of
Students, 940 565 2648. TDD access is available through Relay Texas, 800 735 2989.
Anthropology does not discriminate on the basis of an individual's disability as required
by the Americans with Disabilities Act. The program provides academic adjustments and
aid to individuals with disabilities in its programs and activities. If you have a disability,
you are strongly advised to contact the Office of Disability Accommodations (UU 318A)
or by telephone at 940 565 4323. It is the responsibility of the student to make the
necessary arrangements with the instructors.
Students are expected to complete each day's readings before class. Readings are not
Project Activities Quizzes Readings
Aug 28 Introduction and Course Objectives N/A
Sep 4 Design
Training in Video Ethnography
Informed Consent Form Norman
WEEK 3 Sep 11 Uses of Ethnography in Design
Design Interview Guide Blomberg and Giacomi
Sep 18 Distance Learning TBA
Sep 25 Website Ethnography
Show Video Clips Escobar
Hine Ch. 3
Oct 2 Website Ethnography
Show Video Clips Receive Quiz 1 Instructions Hine Chs. 4, 5
Oct 9 Activity Theory and Human-Computer Interaction
Show Video Clips Kuutti
Holland and Reeves
Oct 16 Activity Theory and Human-Computer Interaction
Show Video Clips/Analyze Project Data Quiz 1 Due Bellamy
Oct 23 Workplace Studies
Show Video Clips/Analyze Project Data Suchman
Heath and Luff Chs. 1, 4
Oct 30 Technology and Organizational Change
Show Video Clips/Analyze Project Data Coopersmith
Nov 6 Technology and Customer Service
Show Video Clips/Analyze Project Data Engestrom & Escalante
Nov 13 Cultures of Consumption
Analyze Project Data Receive Quiz 2 Instructions Miller Chs. 2, 4, 5
WEEK 13 Nov 20 Cultures of Consumption
Analyze Project Data Miller Chs. 6, 7, 8
Nov 27 Analyze Project Data Quiz 2 Due N/A
Dec 4 Prepare Client Presentation N/A
Dec 11 Client Presentation N/A
T,TH 11:00 AM
Dr. Wesley Shumar, Asst. Professor
Office: PSA Rm. 215
Office Hours: MWF 10:00
COURSE DESCRIPTION: From the printing press to the electronic age, mass media has
changed the ways people work, think about themselves and interact with each other.
Increasingly mass media and new electronic media are infiltrating every aspect of social
life in many cultures and societies. These flows of images, sound and information are
complex involving patterns of domination as well as being unevenly distributed across
cultures.This course will look at the influence of mass media and new media on our
contemporary society. The anthropological study of media began with the tradition of
producing ethnographic film films that explored other peoples and cultures. More
recently anthropologist have been studying forms of virtual community on the Internet as
well as the impact of more traditional mass media on people and culture.
This course will survey the anthropological study of media. Last fall the course focused
on the more traditional mass media. This year the course will focus on the Internet and
new media. These new forms of media have changed the way we think about space and
time, the ways we work, shop and engage in leisure activities. We will bring the holistic
approach of anthropology to the study of these new media spaces in order to ask key
questions about social life. How have new media changed our culture and society? What
impact have they had on people's personal identity? In what ways has our consciousness
been reshaped? What are the impacts worldwide?
COURSE OBJECTIVES: Students will become familiar with the concepts and methods
that anthropologists use to study media particularly the adaptation of ethnographic
techniques for the study of cyberspace and new media. Students will develop their own
critical skills as they analyze media and apply concepts to practice in their own work.
Texts available in the University Store:
1999 Cyborgs@Cyberspace. New York, London: Routledge.
Smith, Marc and Kollack, Peter (eds)
1999 Communities in Cyberspace. New York, London: Routledge.
Renninger K. Ann and Shumar, Wesley (eds)
2002 Building Virtual Communities: Learning and Change in Cyberspace. New York,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Readings marked with and asterisk (*) are on reserve in the library. Additional Readings
may be assigned throughout the course. This syllabus is subject to change and may be
updated throughout the course. Please visit the web site regularly in order to learn about
Week 1 The Computer Revolution
Hakken, David 1997 Cyborgs@Cyberspace. Chapters 1+2
Week 2 & 3 Ethnography in Cyberspace
Hakken, David 1997 Cyborgs@Cyberspace. Chapter 3
Smith, Marc and Kollack, Peter (eds) 1999 Communities in Cyberspace. Chapters 4, 5
Critical Thinking Exam 1
Week 4 & 5 Transformation of the Social: Virtual Community
Smith, Marc and Kollack, Peter (eds) 1999 Communities in Cyberspace. Chapters 1,7,8,9
Renninger K. Ann and Shumar, Wesley 2002 Building Virtual Communities: Learning
and Change in Cyberspace. Chapters Intro., 1, 9
Week 6 Issues of Identity
Smith, Marc and Kollack, Peter (eds) 1999 Communities in Cyberspace. Chapters 2, 3
Renninger K. Ann and Shumar, Wesley 2002 Building Virtual Communities: Learning
and Change in Cyberspace. Chapter 7
Critical Thinking Exam 2
Week 7 Online Learning Environments
Renninger K. Ann and Shumar, Wesley 2002 Building Virtual Communities: Learning
and Change in Cyberspace. Chapters 2,3, 5, 11, 12
Week 8 & 9 Poltical Economy and Social Movements
Smith, Marc and Kollack, Peter (eds) 1999 Communities in Cyberspace. Chapters 10-12
Hakken, David 1997 Cyborgs@Cyberspace. Chapters 4-8
Week 10 Summing Up
Final Ethnographic Papers due
1. You are expected to do all of the reading for this course.
2. It is expected that you will attend all classes.
3. All papers (Exams, projects, etc.) are due on the dates listed in the syllabus.
Assuming that the above expectations are met, each assignment will be weighted as
1. Class Participation (10% of the final grade).
2. Paper (40% of the final grade).
Each student will engage in an ethnographic media project. Students must submit a half
page written proposal for the fieldwork and a 10-15 page paper based on their research.
Student will engage in ethnographic fieldwork with some form of media. This analysis
will involve the use of anthropological concepts and methodologies in the analysis of
film, broadcast media, new informational media, etc. The papers will be due on
Thursday, November 29. More detail on the projects will be given in the first week of
3. Critical Thinking Papers (25% each, 50% combined percentage of the final grade).
Two critical thinking exams will be assigned in lieu of a midterm exam. The first
assignment will be handed out on October 11 and will be due October 19. The second
assignment will be handed out on November 8 and due on November 15. Details for
these will be given in class. The critical thinking assignments are designed specifically
for students to reflect up the ideas developed in the texts and in class discussions. Futher
students will be asked to synthesis ideas across the texts, class discussions and films.
Course Proposal 2004-2005
Claudia A. Engel
Fall Quarter 04
Level: Introductory, 4h
Audience: 1st/2nd year students, cross-disciplinary
"Virtual Communities: Online Technologies and Ethnographic Practice"
How can an ethnographic project that involves new online technologies be approached,
theoretically as well as practically? Focusing on the phenomenon of virtual communities
this course will review some of the methodological implications of online ethnographic
research, for example the role of the researcher, the notion of identities, human subject
issues, distributed collaboration, and alternative re-presentations. It will also consider the
conceptual implications, including the interpretation of online technologies as virtual
environments for human interaction versus a cultural artifact, the dual nature of the
Internet as both, a new setting and a new technology for doing ethnography, and
theoretical approaches that may help to understand phenomena of virtual communities.
For the last decade online technologies such as email, newsgroups, blogs, or
chatrooms, have attracted the interest of anthropologists and sociologists and have
become the object and/or the means of ethnographic research (Turkle 1995, Hine 2000,
Miller and Slater 2000, Wilson and Peterson 2002, Constable 2003). It is generally
assumed that online technologies have introduced a new form of human social life called
"virtual communities" (Rheingold 1993) -- groups of people linked by their participation
computer networks. Virtual communities are thought of as sharing many of the
characteristics of people in ordinary communities, yet they have no face-to-face contact,
are not bound by the constraints of time or place, and use computers to communicate
with one another (Jones 1998, Smith and Kollock 1999, Renninger and Shumar 2002).
However, at a closer look, a lot of the "hype" around new technologies is due to a largely
uninterrogated adoption of technological attributes and unquestioned underlying
assumptions. As a hybrid area, which involves designers, anthropologists, sociologists,
technologists, psychologists, architects, and others it draws its strength from an
interdisciplinary field, but definitions of key terms can be ambiguous and incoherent. For
example, it is still not very well understood what the intersection and interactions are
between virtual/real, online/offline, remote/face-to-face and if these commonly used
dimensions are adequate (eg. Elmer 2002, Woolgar 2002). It is also unclear to what
extent existing theories can contribute to help us understand these phenomena and
where new frameworks towards a critical theory of information technologies need to be
developed (Bell 2001, Levy 2001, Gumbrecht and Marrinan 2003, May 2003, Burnett
and Marshall 2003, Hakken 2003).
This proposal builds upon the experience and encouraging student feedback from
CASA151/251 ("Introduction to Cultural Studies") in Fall 2003, which included online
environments, virtual spaces, and the experimentation with alternative ethnographies,
and which I co-taught with Prof. Paulla Ebron. I am not aware of such a course currently
being taught at Stanford. Related courses taught at Stanford are: CS377D ("User
Research Methods Practicum") which focused on one specific technology (blogging) that
was analyzed with traditional ethnographic methods (Nardi et al, under rev.), and PWR
3-25 ("dorm.net: Residential Rhetorics"), designed around a phenomenological study of
the role of language and how Stanford students use online technologies to build
Bibliography (small sample of indicative readings):
Bell, D. (2001). An introduction to cybercultures. London ; New York, Routledge.
Burnett, R. and P. D. Marshall (2003). Web theory : an introduction. London ; New York,
Constable, N. (2003). Romance on a global stage : pen pals, virtual ethnography, and
"mail-order" marriages. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Elmer, G. (2002). Critical perspectives on the Internet. Lanham, Md., Rowman and
Gumbrecht, H. U. and M. Marrinan (2003). Mapping Benjamin : the work of art in the
digital age. Stanford, Calif., Stanford University Press.
Hakken, D. (2003). The knowledge landscapes of cyberspace. New York, Routledge.
Hine, C. (2000). Virtual ethnography. London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif., Sage.
Jones, S. (1998). CyberSociety 2.0 : revisiting computer-mediated communication and
community. Thousand Oaks, Calif., Sage Publications.
May, C. (2003). Key Thinkers for the Information Society. New York, Taylor & Francis,
Miller, D. and D. Slater (2000). The Internet : an ethnographic approach. Oxford ; New
Nardi, B., D Schiano, M. Gumbrecht, L. Swartz (CACM - Accepted, Under Revision).
Blogging This": A Closer Look at Why People Blog.
Renninger, K. A., W. Shumar, et al. (2002). Building virtual communities learning and
change in cyberspace. New York, Cambridge University Press.
Rheingold, H. (1993). The virtual community : homesteading on the electronic frontier.
Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
Smith, M. A. and P. Kollock (1999). Communities in cyberspace. London ; New York,
Turkle, S. (1995). Life on the screen : identity in the age of the Internet. New York,
Simon & Schuster.
Wilson, S. M. and L. C. Peterson (2002). " The Anthropology Of Online Communities."
Annual Review of Anthropology 31(1): 449-467.
Woolgar, S. (2002). Virtual society? : technology, cyberbole, reality. Oxford ; New York,
Oxford University Press.